Wilhelm Richard Wagner (* Mai in Leipzig; † Februar in Venedig) war ein deutscher Komponist, Dramatiker, Dichter, Schriftsteller. Richard Wagner revolutionierte die Oper, beeinflusste die Musikgeschichte, baute sich ein eigenes Festspielhaus und gilt bis heute als typischer Deutscher. von Richard Wagner gegründet, halten sie bis heute am ursprünglichen Vorsatz fest: Aufgeführt werden nur Wagners Opern - und zwar.
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Begun when he was in school in , the play was strongly influenced by Shakespeare and Goethe. Wagner was determined to set it to music and persuaded his family to allow him music lessons.
By , the family had returned to Leipzig. Wagner's first lessons in harmony were taken during —31 with Christian Gottlieb Müller.
Beethoven became a major inspiration, and Wagner wrote a piano transcription of the 9th Symphony. In he saw a performance by dramatic soprano Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient , and she became his ideal of the fusion of drama and music in opera.
In Mein Leben , Wagner wrote, "When I look back across my entire life I find no event to place beside this in the impression it produced on me," and claimed that the "profoundly human and ecstatic performance of this incomparable artist" kindled in him an "almost demonic fire.
In , Wagner enrolled at the Leipzig University , where he became a member of the Saxon student fraternity.
He arranged for his pupil's Piano Sonata in B-flat major which was consequently dedicated to him to be published as Wagner's Op. A year later, Wagner composed his Symphony in C major , a Beethovenesque work performed in Prague in  and at the Leipzig Gewandhaus in In , Wagner's brother Albert managed to obtain for him a position as choirmaster at the theatre in Würzburg.
This work, which imitated the style of Weber, went unproduced until half a century later, when it was premiered in Munich shortly after the composer's death in Having returned to Leipzig in , Wagner held a brief appointment as musical director at the opera house in Magdeburg  during which he wrote Das Liebesverbot The Ban on Love , based on Shakespeare's Measure for Measure.
This was staged at Magdeburg in but closed before the second performance; this, together with the financial collapse of the theatre company employing him, left the composer in bankruptcy.
In June , Wagner moved to Riga then in the Russian Empire , where he became music director of the local opera;  having in this capacity engaged Minna's sister Amalie also a singer for the theatre, he presently resumed relations with Minna during By , the couple had amassed such large debts that they fled Riga on the run from creditors.
Wagner made a scant living by writing articles and short novelettes such as A pilgrimage to Beethoven , which sketched his growing concept of "music drama", and An end in Paris , where he depicts his own miseries as a German musician in the French metropolis.
During this stay he completed his third and fourth operas Rienzi and Der fliegende Holländer. Wagner had completed Rienzi in His relief at returning to Germany was recorded in his " Autobiographic Sketch " of , where he wrote that, en route from Paris, "For the first time I saw the Rhine —with hot tears in my eyes, I, poor artist, swore eternal fidelity to my German fatherland.
Wagner lived in Dresden for the next six years, eventually being appointed the Royal Saxon Court Conductor.
Wagner also mixed with artistic circles in Dresden, including the composer Ferdinand Hiller and the architect Gottfried Semper. Wagner's involvement in left-wing politics abruptly ended his welcome in Dresden.
Wagner was active among socialist German nationalists there, regularly receiving such guests as the conductor and radical editor August Röckel and the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin.
Warrants were issued for the revolutionaries' arrest. Wagner had to flee, first visiting Paris and then settling in Zürich  [n 5] where he at first took refuge with a friend, Alexander Müller.
Wagner was to spend the next twelve years in exile from Germany. He had completed Lohengrin , the last of his middle-period operas, before the Dresden uprising, and now wrote desperately to his friend Franz Liszt to have it staged in his absence.
Liszt conducted the premiere in Weimar in August Nevertheless, Wagner was in grim personal straits, isolated from the German musical world and without any regular income.
In , Julie, the wife of his friend Karl Ritter, began to pay him a small pension which she maintained until With help from her friend Jessie Laussot, this was to have been augmented to an annual sum of 3, Thalers per year; but this plan was abandoned when Wagner began an affair with Mme.
Wagner even planned an elopement with her in , which her husband prevented. Wagner fell victim to ill-health, according to Ernest Newman "largely a matter of overwrought nerves", which made it difficult for him to continue writing.
Wagner's primary published output during his first years in Zürich was a set of essays. In " The Artwork of the Future " , he described a vision of opera as Gesamtkunstwerk "total work of art" , in which the various arts such as music, song, dance, poetry, visual arts and stagecraft were unified.
According to him, they composed music to achieve popularity and, thereby, financial success, as opposed to creating genuine works of art.
In " Opera and Drama " , Wagner described the aesthetics of drama that he was using to create the Ring operas.
Before leaving Dresden, Wagner had drafted a scenario that eventually became the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. He initially wrote the libretto for a single opera, Siegfrieds Tod Siegfried's Death , in After arriving in Zürich, he expanded the story with the opera Der junge Siegfried Young Siegfried , which explored the hero's background.
He completed the text of the cycle by writing the libretti for Die Walküre The Valkyrie and Das Rheingold The Rhine Gold and revising the other libretti to agree with his new concept, completing them in Partly in an attempt to explain his change of views, Wagner published in the autobiographical " A Communication to My Friends ".
I shall never write an Opera more. As I have no wish to invent an arbitrary title for my works, I will call them Dramas I propose to produce my myth in three complete dramas, preceded by a lengthy Prelude Vorspiel.
At a specially-appointed Festival, I propose, some future time, to produce those three Dramas with their Prelude, in the course of three days and a fore-evening [emphasis in original].
Wagner began composing the music for Das Rheingold between November and September , following it immediately with Die Walküre written between June and March He decided to put the work aside to concentrate on a new idea: Tristan und Isolde ,  based on the Arthurian love story Tristan and Iseult.
One source of inspiration for Tristan und Isolde was the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer , notably his The World as Will and Representation , to which Wagner had been introduced in by his poet friend Georg Herwegh.
Wagner later called this the most important event of his life. He remained an adherent of Schopenhauer for the rest of his life. One of Schopenhauer's doctrines was that music held a supreme role in the arts as a direct expression of the world's essence, namely, blind, impulsive will.
Wagner scholars have argued that Schopenhauer's influence caused Wagner to assign a more commanding role to music in his later operas, including the latter half of the Ring cycle, which he had yet to compose.
A second source of inspiration was Wagner's infatuation with the poet-writer Mathilde Wesendonck , the wife of the silk merchant Otto Wesendonck.
Wagner met the Wesendoncks, who were both great admirers of his music, in Zürich in From May onwards Wesendonck made several loans to Wagner to finance his household expenses in Zürich,  and in placed a cottage on his estate at Wagner's disposal,  which became known as the Asyl "asylum" or "place of rest".
During this period, Wagner's growing passion for his patron's wife inspired him to put aside work on the Ring cycle which was not resumed for the next twelve years and begin work on Tristan.
Two of these settings are explicitly subtitled by Wagner as "studies for Tristan und Isolde ". Amongst the conducting engagements that Wagner undertook for revenue during this period, he gave several concerts in with the Philharmonic Society of London , including one before Queen Victoria.
Wagner's uneasy affair with Mathilde collapsed in , when Minna intercepted a letter to Mathilde from him. In an letter to Mathilde, Wagner wrote, half-satirically, of Tristan : "Child!
This Tristan is turning into something terrible. This final act!!! Perfectly good ones will be bound to drive people mad.
In November , Wagner once again moved to Paris to oversee production of a new revision of Tannhäuser , staged thanks to the efforts of Princess Pauline von Metternich , whose husband was the Austrian ambassador in Paris.
The performances of the Paris Tannhäuser in were a notable fiasco. This was partly a consequence of the conservative tastes of the Jockey Club , which organised demonstrations in the theatre to protest at the presentation of the ballet feature in act 1 instead of its traditional location in the second act ; but the opportunity was also exploited by those who wanted to use the occasion as a veiled political protest against the pro-Austrian policies of Napoleon III.
The political ban that had been placed on Wagner in Germany after he had fled Dresden was fully lifted in The composer settled in Biebrich , on the Rhine near Wiesbaden in Hesse.
Wagner wrote a first draft of the libretto in ,  and he had resolved to develop it during a visit he had made to Venice with the Wesendoncks in , where he was inspired by Titian 's painting The Assumption of the Virgin.
Wagner's fortunes took a dramatic upturn in , when King Ludwig II succeeded to the throne of Bavaria at the age of The young king, an ardent admirer of Wagner's operas, had the composer brought to Munich.
After grave difficulties in rehearsal, Tristan und Isolde premiered at the National Theatre Munich on 10 June , the first Wagner opera premiere in almost 15 years.
The premiere had been scheduled for 15 May, but was delayed by bailiffs acting for Wagner's creditors,  and also because the Isolde, Malvina Schnorr von Carolsfeld , was hoarse and needed time to recover.
The conductor of this premiere was Hans von Bülow , whose wife, Cosima , had given birth in April that year to a daughter, named Isolde, a child not of Bülow but of Wagner.
Cosima was 24 years younger than Wagner and was herself illegitimate, the daughter of the Countess Marie d'Agoult , who had left her husband for Franz Liszt.
Minna had died of a heart attack on 25 January in Dresden. Wagner did not attend the funeral. He consented only after she had two more children with Wagner; another daughter, named Eva, after the heroine of Meistersinger , and a son Siegfried , named for the hero of the Ring.
The divorce was finally sanctioned, after delays in the legal process, by a Berlin court on 18 July Wagner, settled into his new-found domesticity, turned his energies towards completing the Ring cycle.
He had not abandoned polemics: he republished his pamphlet "Judaism in Music", originally issued under a pseudonym, under his own name in He extended the introduction, and wrote a lengthy additional final section.
The publication led to several public protests at early performances of Die Meistersinger in Vienna and Mannheim.
In , Wagner decided to move to Bayreuth , which was to be the location of his new opera house. Learn how to create a geometric accent wall to add a focal point to the room.
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